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Intellectualizing of few-storey buildings: comfort and comprehensive safety

A.V. Mikhailik, general director of «Perao» company
A.S. Vinogradov, technological director of «Perao» company

A modern few-storey building represents an object sufficiently equipped with different technological devices for providing comfort and comprehensive safety. The «сomfort» comprises a number of control systems such as climatizing, heating, conditioning and telephony, using the data transmitting networks. The «safety» includes security and fire-signalizing systems as well as video-control and access to the house systems.
For an example, let’s take a private house located in the suburbs of Moscow. If we are going to provide that house with comfort and safety the following functions have to be realized:
   • Local wire — and wireless telephony network connected to town lines and IP-lines; connection to another local telephony network
   • Wire — and wireless data transmitting network over all area and access to any network resources: printers, computers, fax, video-control as well as access — and signalizing systems
   • Video-control systems with facilities of connection to doors and electric locks and other actuating devices using wireless video-cameras besides standard systems of control
   • Back-ground sound inside the house and underwater acoustics in water-pools, sound sources being hidden; and the acoustics being built-in and controlled using transmitting network for the signals coming from IR-control board
   • Hidden in the ceiling home-cinema system with projector and automatic projection screen as well as a device with drivers for opening of the decorative panels
   • Security and fire signalizing
   • Illumination and floor heating control
   • Stand-by power supply including smart UPS and a diesel generator
   • Remote control of all the systems using Internet and connection to local telephone network
The given example shows that the modern engineering systems have developed to a level quite enough to use them for building of few-storey houses and to use them even in separate flats.
When building of each system separately ignoring interactions and general control of all the systems on the whole — the efficiency of exploitation greatly decreases, and this fact can be proved when designing of low-powered systems on the stage of draft.
When building a house or a flat overhauling, it becomes to be of a great importance the fact that after finishing of the building it’s valued cost become much higher than your money you invested into the complex design.
Some people believe that classic architecture and interior can not match modern intellectualized houses. That is wrong. If the systems presented below are built-in and skillfully performed, they are invisible. So, having got all the modern conveniences of the living house of the 21st century you can save its classic interior. After all, meeting customer needs is our general purpose.
Below in this paper we present some basic components of house intellectualizing systems. All of the systems have been realized in different combinations and options for real objects.
Low-powered systems include the following services:
   • Data transmitting network
   • Video-control systems
   • Access-control systems
   • Signalizing systems
   • Dispatching systems
   • TV-signal transmitting network
   • Acoustic systems
   • Enclosure and uninterrupted power supply
All the systems can be closely interwoven with systems of power, heating, air-and water conditioning.

I. Data transmitting network
At present all the house devices serve as data source and receivers. The main purpose of the design is to make then compatible. Interactions between them mean a guaranteed data exchange, that is guaranteed service and realizing.
The given network provides connections between telephones, computers, video-cameras, TV-sets as well as signalizing systems and many other devices and systems.
Qualificatively performed network can guarantee joint operation of all the devices, providing high quality of the complex design service.
The given approach allows to reduce the number of cable lines, devices and sockets in rooms. One can use universal sockets for inserting any devices: telephones, computers, printers, TV-sets, video-cameras and so on.
The complex design based on the data transmitting network doesn’t need each system building separately. Some companies build them separately and make the customers pay out each of the systems 3 or 4 times.
Let’s consider the telephone functions in the data transmitting network and options of its connection to the town telephone network.
Nowadays town telephone networks can be connected to serve as your old disk telephone-set as well as your data transmitting network.
Using the second option you can diminish your expenditures for external telephone connections and what is more: to expand the functions; for example: you can access video telephony, multi-channel numbers, information about different services cost and so on.
Using united network makes the data transmitting more protected because the information presents a flow of decoded data.
The main functions of the telephone network are the following ones:
   • Telephony between local abonents
   • External telephony lines
   • Connection to intercom systems; control of electric locks and gates
   • Wireless telephony covering the area on the whole and providing uninterrupted speaking
   • Integration with the signalizing system, delivery of text- and voice- auto messages
   • Calls distribution according to any established priorities
   • Functions of auto secretary with a wide range of facilities
Here are just some of the functions you get, if using modern PBX (Private Branch Exchange) presented in this design.
Now let’s consider computer network functions in the united data transmitting network and connection them to the Internet.
At present town telephone networks can operate like data transmitting network and provide access to the WAN (Wide area network) — the Internet.
When connecting the local data transmitting network to the Internet.
The customer can use all the services and with this the security and confidence will be provided by means of the central equipment of the local data transmitting network.
The main computer network functions are:
   • Distribution of the access to the Internet resources as well as to the local resources. If you have several computers (in your study-room, in the children’s room, laptop, desk-top and so on) — all of them can use the wide and local network resources according to the established priorities
   • Using of total resources of local network such as printer, scanner, fax, and others from any point connectible to the computer network
   • In the case of using the united data transmitting network you get comprehensive integration with video-control, security and fire- signalizing systems
   • Integration, monitoring and control all the systems, that is air- and water conditioning, heating and illumination, as any actuating devices such as drivers, electric locks and so on
   • Sound notification using the back- ground sound system
   • Facilities of complete using of IP-telephony capabilities like the ordinary telephone lines using local telephony network (LTN)
   • Comfort: having the united data transmitting network over all the area around your house you can use any wireless devices: computer, mobile telephone, printer, fax in any point of the area.
Here is an example from our practice: our costume had very strict demands for the architecture of the interior. He did not want anything to destroy the classic ensemble. As to the study room it was not possible to build it without modern office technique. The problem turned to be Simple. The customer used only mobile computers. Entering his cabinet he just engaged his computer to use all the conveniences provided by the equipment built into a fine maple furniture. And when he needed to use his plasma-screen to watch any film or any video-presentation from his mobile computer, it was enough just to press the universal remote control for opening the 63" plasma-screen hidden behind heavy doors of 80 kg in weight.

II. Video-control system
Video-control is a part of security system in modern houses, and is one of the most important components of warning of any unfriendly actions not only from outside but also within the house.
The main demanded functions are the following ones:
   • Video-record. The record is carried out using all cameras inside the house as well as along the fences (or through the spy-hole, and the door-inter com system). The recording is carried out by registrars and is dated with accuracy of one second. If can be realized as continuously as well as at the moment of any movement
   • Video-control in real-time. You can always see what is going on within the sight of cameras using your computers, or any of your TV-sets in the house
   • Video-record in safely carried out being independent from illumination and air-temperature
   • Using the data transmitting network you need not any additional network, because your cameras can be connected to the same wire — or wireless network like all the rest telephones and computers and all the org-technique
   • If you have got the net-server, you need not any additional devices like registrars to record, because all the functions can be fulfilled by the  software

III. Access control system
The given system is closely inter woven with the previous systems. The fact is that there are some restrictions in the access control system designed for houses on flats in comparison with that for offices.
Here are some examples of access control system using:
   • Opening of doors and gates remotely, for instance — when coming up to your house
   • Opening of doors and gates using wire — and wireless devices and intercom systems
   • Distribution of the access to the most important rooms and their visiting control
If your house is vast and the personnel is numerous you need a more complicated system, and that problem can be considered in another paper.
The given system in any options ideally matches the united data transmitting network and doesn’t need any additional calling, and more over it saves your time and money.

IV. Signaling systems
This system is widely known and realized, so we will not stop long on it. It’s basic function is to notify you the security service about any unsanctioned access to the places which are under security, as well as warning the fire security about fire alarm and the person responsible for the leakage about a leakage.
Here we can add, that a great variety of equipments is available nowadays, but the most profitable solution is to built your signaling system using the united data transmitting system. The personnel will be able to respond to any coming signal in no time, and with this using the Internet you can get all the reports and monitoring.

V. Dispatching systems
The function of dispatching system ware described above when considering systems of heading, conditioning and illumination control.
Dispatching systems give as possibility to control and monitor all the engineering systems in the house and flat. They include electric drivers of blinds, automatic gates as well as drivers for the TV-screen opening, and projectors drivers.

VI. TV-signals transmitting network
This problem is rather vast and complicated especially if it is necessary to control different satellite TV-channels simultaneously with TV-sets placed in different rooms. For example, in your vast house some people are watching simultaneously a number of Satellite TV-channels and quantity of TV-sets in the house is large. One day you may watch TV in your living room, and the other day you want to watch a football match sitting in the dining room. How do you think to arrange the TV- network in order to reduce the quantity of the TV-operators contract equal to the quantity of the TV-sets in your house. More over you want to avoid keeping a lot of different boxes around.
The way out of it is simple: You build IR-network and this network transmit signals from the channel changing remote control and to each of TV-sets connected to the IR-signal (absolute invisible) this IR-signal receiver being placed together with the rest equipment in the encloser.

VII. Acoustic systems and acoustic signal transmitting network
These systems include not only cinema speakers built-in, bat also loud speakers inside and outside the building, as well as the notification systems.
The equipment in this systems is extremely diverse:
   1. Back-ground sound inside the building. If may be independent or dependent on one of the cinema systems, and the speakers being invisible built-in and the sound quality being excellent
   2. Devices of sound tuning and sound source selection, built-in together with the furniture
   3. Different kinds of speakers: wet-proof (for bathrooms, shower-cabins, swimming-pools) and speakers resistant to high temperature and moisture (for sauna and steam bath); as well as outdoor speakers for the garden acoustic (in forms of vasons, stones and so on)
   4. Acoustic systems can be connected to PBX for notification over all the area

VIII. Enclosers and uninterrupted power supply
An encloser you need to install all the mentioned central equipment (the basic units, communication panels).
The encloser has got guidings and if you properly installed the equipment inside it, it will ideally cool and can be easily maintained in no time.
As to the problem of uninterrupted power supply for the equipment built-in, it is usually a source of continuous power-supply installed inside the encloser providing 15 min uninterrupted operation without external power.
If you need a work of a longer duration for not only your low-powered systems or you need a work independent of external power, you have to get a generator or a power-full system, based on accumulators, or a kinetic system.
Generator systems function in the following way: when all the equipment in the house is disconnected with external power and you have to go on your work, you can use accumulators to have time for the generator starting and the further feeding will be provided by the generator.
There are 2 kinds of generators nowadays: gas– and diesel-generators. When the magistral gas is available it is convenient to use gas-generators and in other cases you have to use diesel-generators.
When arranging your generators system properly they will need minimum of annual maintenance.
Nowadays one can find H2- generators in the market, but nobody can be sure that H2-fuel will be always available in sufficient amounts.
It’s pity because the H2- generators look more attractive in the perspective, making low noise and having high efficiency and being ecologically harmless.
As to the accumulators their using is more expensive than using generators, because they need frequent maintenance.
Besides the central equipment, that is the hard core and peripheral equipment, there must be mentioned the most important component of the design — cabling (SKN (structural cabling network)).
It is cabling for power supply and data transmitting from the central equipment to the peripheral ones, as well as for receiving the reply by the core.
If SKN complies with high quality standards your expensive equipment will function efficiently and will resistant to any malfunctions.
In connection with this the most important component in the complex design seems to be the testing and certification according to standards of SKN.
The testing and certification is carried out using high-precision metrological complexes.
The certificated SKN gives possibility to guarantee your equipment functioning according to exploitation characteristics, that is, gives a guarantee for all the complex design.
Correct network designing by certificated specialists leads to a higher comfort and after the ordered building had finished the customer gets a house of a higher valued cost greatly increasing the money he had invested, and the equipment guaranty duration grows longer.
All these advantages result in more valuable service than in the case of separate designing.
"Perao" company has got a significant experience after having realized some complex designs in close cooperation with architects and leading world equipment manufacturers.
"Perao" company supports architects and design managers as well as representatives of the customer and any people concerned.

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